"Camellia" cultivation techniques

First, breeding technology

1, cutting

In the May to June rainy season, young female trees were selected and annual twigs were cut from the top, about 10 cm long, and the lower leaves were removed. The lower part of the section was razed with a blade, and the top buds were left with one bud and two or three leaves. In river sand or gravel medium, the depth of insertion is 1/3~2/3. After covering, it will cover the shade of grass curtain, strengthen the foliar spray, keep the air humidity of the plug bed, and promote rooting. To increase the survival rate of cuttings, the cuttings can be soaked with 50-100ppm ABT rooting powder solution for 8-12 hours.

2. Grafting

Choose vigorously growing seedlings or cuttings of tea varieties that are easy to survive as root stocks, cut at 4 to 5 cm from the ground, cut about 1.5 cm deep through the pith, use 1 to 2 year old shoots for scion, and keep the top of the scion 1 ~ 2 leaves, the lower part of the wedge into a wedge, inserted into the split cracks of the rootstock, the formation of the two sides should be closely joined, and then tied with plastic tape.

Then, after the management, cover the scion with a plastic bag, and then tie it with a strap, but do not tighten it so that water droplets form inside the bag and drip on the stock. Put a paper wrapper outside the plastic bag to shield it from direct sunlight.

3, bud plug

For each section of bud, keep a leaf, about 1.5cm long, cut obliquely at the lower part, and then insert it into the medium. The depth is to cover the branches. This method can make full use of branches, suitable for mass reproduction needs.

1, open field planting

1) The soil is fertile and slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.5-6.

2) Planting time Spring plants are mainly plantlets from February to March; autumn planting after November has a good effect.

3) Fertilizer Camellia is not like fertilizer, usually 10 to 11 months before flowering, 4 to 5 months after flowering, fertilization 2 to 4 times. Fertilizers mainly use compound fertilizers, composts, and the appropriate amount of phosphate fertilizers; (The principle of fertilization is to apply fertilizer more frequently. Strong seedlings are applied more, and weak seedlings are less or not applied).

4) Camellia grows slowly and should not be pruned by intensity; evenly developed crowns do not require special pruning. Only pests and branches, dense branches, weak branches and leggy branches need to be cut off. New seedlings can also be trimmed moderately to ensure survival. Extracting buds is an important part of cultivation and management. Generally, each bud retains at most 3 buds and maintains a certain spacing. This can reduce excessive nutrient consumption of plants and affect flowering. The flowering period of Camellia is as long as six months. It is timely to engage in the flowering of wilting, reduce the consumption of nutrients, and enhance the tree vigor.

5) Diseases and pests control and the main diseases of cultivating and weeding camellia are brown spot, yellowing disease and moss on branches. Insect pests are red spiders. Various scale insects, moths. Rose bee, etc. The occurrence of pests and diseases greatly affects tree vigor and its ornamental nature. The prevention and control methods were as follows: Borrelia was sprayed with Bordeaux mixture prior to germination in the spring, and then continued to be sprayed and prevented every two weeks thereafter. Drainage and fertilization were also taken care of, and the damaged leaves were removed and burned. Yellowing disease is mainly caused by the lack of trace elements in the soil, and it can be often controlled by using ferrous sulfate or magnesium sulfate solution. Red spiders and various scale insects control spraying of pine oil mixture and enhance ventilation. Various types of moths. Rose beetles and other 40% omethoate 400 to 155 times or 80% of dichlorvos EC 1000 to 1200 times spray control. Weeding and weeding, cleaning the garden can also effectively prevent and treat diseases and insect pests, increase tree vigor, and increase flower bloom. Cultivated land should be removed 6 to 7 times a year.

2, potted plants

1) Pottery soil chooses slightly acidic, loose, fertile mixed soil for potting. The proportion of mixed soil was 6 for garden soil, 3 for pine humus, and 1 to 2 for sand.

2) Selection of basins Pottery basins are preferred, and the ratio of pot size to seedlings is: 40 to 50 cm for seedlings, 20 to 25 cm for crowns, and about 20 cm in diameter. Other sizes and so on. Commercial use of Zisha pots better seedlings, can enhance the viewing effect.

3) Pot seedlings Choose plants that grow robustly, trunk, and stemless, with a beautiful crown, green leaves, and no pests.

4) Watering management New planting seedlings, pouring water for the first time, watering ground within 2 months, and keeping the basin soil moist. After the same watering as other flowering pots. The number of times depends on the climate conditions to keep the soil moist. More water is poured in spring to meet the needs of sprouting; the summer should be in the morning and evening, the rainy season should prevent water accumulation, the autumn drought should be watered in time, the winter should be frost-free, and the watering should be carried out at noon.

5) Sheltered and Camellia Camellia should be given sufficient sunshine in the spring and rainy seasons and shaded in summer and fall. When winter temperatures drop to zero, they must be moved into the interior to prevent cold.

6) The control of flowering time is mainly through the selection of varieties, temperature control and hormone treatment to achieve the purpose of early flowering or delayed flowering. In order to delay flowering, late flowering varieties can be selected and controlled at low temperature (cold storage at 2 to 3 degrees Celsius and storage cold-treated plants), and flowering can be delayed in January. In order to make it early flowering, early flower varieties such as small pink, snow towers, and four landscapes must be selected, followed by heavy fertilizer and hormone treatment. The method is to stop growing in the Camellia spring. After the formation of flower buds, topdressing heavy fertilizers to make early flowering twigs mature and early to stop growing; in mid-July or early August, use a brush to spot coat 500 to 1000 ppm gibberellin to the buds, once in three days, with reasonable Fertilizer; in September, depending on the condition of flower bud hypertrophy, gibberellin was applied again. When the requirement was not satisfied, the number of spraying was applied at discretion, followed by spraying water to top-dressing, and the flower buds rapidly increased, and the flower buds could be blossomed earlier from the end of September to November. .

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