Autumnal points: Soil fertilization before sowing

September 23 is the equinox, from this day onwards, the direct sunlight position moves further southwards, the northern hemisphere becomes increasingly short and long, and the temperature decreases. Chinese folks regard the autumn equinox as the dividing line between summer and autumn. After the autumnal equinox, the climate became cooler and the farming operation entered the “three autumn” stage of autumn harvest, autumn farming, and autumn crops. To start planting winter wheat in North China, Northwest China and other regions, just as the pastures have been handed down for many years: the white dew is early, the cold dew is late, and the equinox is wheat. Although the suitable sowing date for winter wheat has been delayed in recent years, the timing of the autumnal harvest and the preparation of fertilizers for wheat fields is up.

Winter wheat has a long growing period, and it must go through autumn, winter, spring and early summer. During a long period of fertility, the supply of farmland soil moisture and nutrients is always the determinant factor of yield. The soil preparation and fertilization before sowing wheat is the important foundation for improving the soil environment for the next year's high yield of wheat. The farming of wheat fields includes deep plowing and site preparation before planting. Deep plowing can deepen the tillage layer, coordinate the conditions of water, fertilizer, gas and heat, and ensure the smooth emergence and normal fertility of wheat. The depth of arable land should reach 20-25 cm. Before the planting of land, we must smooth the surface, remove the compaction, keep the lining and deepen the basal fertilizer. Specifically, we must start from three aspects:

First, after harvesting the corn, we should pay close attention to the three links of deep plowing, fertilization and soil preparation before sowing. The cultivation and soil preparation of wheat fields should be: deep plowing and deep plowing, deepening tillage; cultivating soil thoroughly, not leaking soil; soil crushing, no clear dark plow; ground leveling; Only in this way will good water, fertilizer and soil basic conditions be prepared for the high yield of winter wheat.

Second, the wheat field management should promote the cultivation method of water saving and high yield. In major wheat-producing areas such as North China and Northwest China, there are often spring drought problems. For this purpose, natural precipitation and soil storage should be fully utilized to reduce the number of irrigations and the amount of water. In order to achieve high yields under inadequate irrigation conditions, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of precipitation and soil water utilization and implement a water-saving cultivation technology system with characteristics of drought resistance. These include: 2 m soil water storage function, summer storage, reduce evaporation loss on the ground, due to the distribution of wheat roots in 2 m soil zone, and the average of 2 m soil layer in the loam soil can be stored 650 mm Above, the effective amount of water can reach 465mm. This water resource must be fully utilized in the high yield cultivation of winter wheat. For this reason, on the one hand, adequate planting is used. On the other hand, the beneficial effect of water deficit on the root system of crops is moderately used. The water deficit in the upper layer of the soil is caused by the early water control, and the deep rooting of the wheat root system is forced to increase the proportion of primary roots; In the later period of wheat, full use of deep water will improve the drought resistance of wheat. And this water control can form a small plant structure of wheat, good light transmission, high leaf quality, and the photosynthetic rate and transpiration ratio of the population can be increased.

In short, the main points of winter wheat water-saving and high-yielding technology are: First, the bottom of the water before sowing needs to be poured, the irrigation water is converted into soil water, and the pre-planting farming measures are adopted to keep the topsoil loose after sowing and reduce evaporation and water consumption. Second, the appropriate late broadcast. It not only reduces the water consumption before the winter, but also provides the time for the full maturity of the former glutinous corn, so that the corn can increase grain weight and obtain higher yield. Third, ensure the quality of sowing. Increase the basic seedlings for this purpose. In order to reduce the evaporation and water consumption in winter and spring, after the sowing, the ridge and furrow shall be used to suppress and water shall be used. The repression technology must grasp the principle of dry weight, wet ground light pressure, and follow-up pressure, so that when the planting is large, it can be dispersed and then pressed. Through the above measures, it is beneficial to postpone the spring irrigation and achieve a higher output target by pouring water in the spring.

Third, give enough base fertilizer. Combining fertilizers with organic fertilisers, a combination of chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers is applied. Phosphorus fertilizers were applied in layers; the amount of basal nitrogen was properly controlled; 50% of nitrogen fertilizer was used as the base fertilizer; 50% of nitrogen fertilizer was applied at the beginning or jointing stage; potassium-deficient land should be treated with potash fertilizer, and attention should be paid to the combination of slow-release fertilizer. In short, the basal fertilizer nutrient types and the use of the master, nitrogen fertilizer can only use about 50% of the full-season dose, while the amount of phosphorus to be about 80%, potassium can be a primary application. Fertilizer varieties can be adapted to local conditions, either single fertilizer or compound fertilizer. The proportion of nitrogen in winter wheat special fertilizer formulations should be reduced accordingly, and the proportion of phosphorus should not be low. In wheat fields that are often not treated with organic fertilizer, potassium cannot be deficient in basal fertilizers. Compound (mixed) fertilizers are not suitable for high-nitrogen compound fertilizers because the other part of nitrogen needed for winter wheat is used for top dressing in the coming spring. If the basal fertilizer is made of high-nitrogen type compound fertilizer, it will not only result in nitrogen loss and waste of basal nitrogen, but also lead to low grain weight due to lack of phosphorus in the later grouting.

The application method and depth of basal fertilizer is also very important, and it can be applied in conjunction with cultivating strips to 18 to 20 cm below the top soil.

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