Occurrence characteristics and control techniques of citrus pests in summer and autumn

From midsummer to autumn, temperatures are high, sunshine is long, and citrus fruits are inflated. Diseases mainly include ulcer disease and black spot disease. Buds such as flower buds, leafhoppers, aphids, and leaf nails enter summer or dormancy, while rust, leaf miner, and some shields (black spots, brown beaks, etc.) are at peak times. During this period, many natural enemies have formed stable populations and natural control effects are apparent. In the management of oranges, fruit should be the main protection. In pest control, we should take care of covering the crops in the orangery, attract and protect natural enemies, and give full play to natural control. The control of shoots was performed on the leaf miners, and the artificial capture was carried out on the long-horned beetles. Selective agents were used on a few species of shielded grasshoppers and leaf lepidoptera pests on the basis of the forecast. The basic conditions for the prevalence of ulcer disease are the combination of high temperature and humidity and the sensitive young tissue. When the temperature is 25-30 °C, the amount of rainfall is positively related to the severity of the disease. High temperatures and rain, especially typhoon rain, are conducive to the propagation, spread, and intrusion of pathogens. Unreasonable fertilization or excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer will cause many times of orange seeding and inconsistent aging, which will aggravate the occurrence of diseases. Pests that damage citrus leaves, such as leaf miners and papilio larvae, have a large number of wounds, resulting in a large number of wounds, which are conducive to the invasion of pathogens and serious diseases. Varieties susceptible to sweet oranges, grapefruits and lemons are the most susceptible, oranges are inferior, oranges are more disease resistant, and kumquats are the most resistant. This difference is closely related to the distribution, density, and opening size of stomata. The host has different susceptibility at different stages of development. Canker usually infects only young tissues at a certain stage of development. It does not infect or rarely infect young shoots, young fruit that has just been flowered, and mature tissues. Infection. The prevention and control methods were classified according to the non-disease area (new area) and the old ward area. The prevention and control methods for non-disease or new areas are mainly: strict quarantine, prohibiting input of seedlings, scions, seeds, fruits, etc. from the ward. The establishment of a disease-free nursery and the cultivation of disease-free seedling disease-free nurseries should be established in isolated areas or in plastic greenhouses. Rootstock seeds and scions should be disinfected. Rootstock seed disinfection: The seeds were first placed in 50-52°C hot water and preheated for 5 minutes, then transferred to 55-56°C constant temperature hot water and immersed for 50 minutes. After treatment, the seeds were washed with clean water and dried after sowing. Scion treatment method: Use 700 units/ml streptomycin plus 1% alcohol as auxiliary agent to sterilize for 1.5 hours, wash with water, then graft. The prevention and control methods for the old wards should adopt comprehensive measures centered on clean gardens and sprayed at appropriate times. Sensitive adult trees cut off summer and autumn shoots, leaving only spring shoots; young trees cut off summer shoots, leaving only spring and autumn shoots. Do clear the garden after the first tip. Timely spraying, spray protection of new shoots and young fruit. Spraying at the shoot growth stage is 15-20 days after germination, and spraying at fruit growth stage begins 15 days after flowering. The effective medicines include: 20% Thiocterol Copper Suspension 500 times, or 77% can kill 2000-type wettable powder 800-1000 times or 80% Dasong M-45 600 times; mixed with agricultural streptomycin It has obvious synergistic effect, and can also treat rust and other diseases on the fruit surface to improve the surface finish. At the same time, strengthen the cultivation and management, through reasonable water and fertilizer management, control the summer shoot growth, timely prevention and control of leaf miners and other pests. Citrus black spot disease is one of the major diseases that damage citrus. It mainly infects fruit from young fruit and shows symptoms during the expansion period, which seriously affects the appearance quality, vigor and yield of the fruit. Spray 3 times between June and August after fruiting, depending on the amount of rainfall at each interval. Generally, it can be sprayed once when the cumulative rainfall reaches 200-300 mm. The agent can be used 80% of Dasheng M-45 600 times solution (both rust and rust), 70% mancozeb 500 times. Citrus orange rust is also known as rust wall nibs, with spurs of fruit, leaves and tender shoots. After the fruit is damaged, it turns into a dark brown, commonly known as "black skin fruit", and is covered with fine lines of cracked mesh. The fruit shape becomes smaller and the quality deteriorates, which greatly reduces the yield and quality of the fruit. The leaves are damaged, the color becomes rust and brown, and often leads to defoliation, which affects the vigor and is an important pest for citrus production. There is a clear phenomenon of overlapping generations, usually parthenogenetic breeding. Summer hot and dry conditions are conducive to happen. Prevention and control are based on biological control, on-the-spot measurement and reporting, and rational use of pesticides for prevention and control. Establishing a stable natural enemies community in orchards is a fundamental measure for controlling citrus rust spiders. A variety of ladybugs and predatory mites are important predatory natural enemies of the rust spider, and trichomes are important parasitic enemies of the rust spider. Rationally use chemical control on the basis of field surveys and forecasts. When the number of leaves per leaf or per fruitworm reaches 5 to 10, it should be sprayed and controlled immediately. Pharmacy can be used 73% chlorbenazirone chlorinated oil 3000 times, 15% kill wolfberry special emulsion 2000-3000 times, 25% clerodendane wettable powder 1500-2000 times. At the same time, citrus gardens with serious rust damage have enhanced management of water and fertilizers during spraying and spraying of foliar fertilizers, which can promote leaf turning green, increase tree vigor, and increase plant resistance to insects. Citrus leafminer: It is one of the major pests that harm citrus leaves. It occurs more than 10 generations a year, and the juniper shoots are the most dangerous during July-August each year, especially in the autumn shoots. There are also differences in early and late in different regions. Adults lay their eggs on leaves with a length of 1-4 cm. After hatching, the larvae infiltrate into the epidermis of the leaves from the underside of the egg shell and start feeding. The leaf surface is lifted with mouthparts, and the cell juice is taken. Made of curved silver-white tunnel. The damaged leaves are often curled, easily fall off, and can easily induce ulcer disease and provide habitat for other pests inhabiting or overwintering. Prevention and control should control the fertilizer and water, so that tidy shoots, to cut off the food chain of leaf miner, to avoid the peak period. Chemical control is the main method to prevent the damage of leaf miners. When most of the new shoots are 2-3 cm long, they are sprayed and sprayed every other week for 2-3 consecutive times. Pharmaceutics can be used: 20% good year winter 2000-3000 times solution; 24% Wanling agent or 5% stuck or 5% taibao EC 1000-1500 times; 1.8% worm killing star 5000 -8000 times; 2.5% Uranus EC 4000-5000 times solution. Anthraquinone pests: The most common type of pest occurring on oranges. This type of pest has a high productivity and spawning capacity, ranging from hundreds of grains to more than a thousand grains. The incubation period is not neat, and it takes about one month before and after, which gives Prevention has brought great difficulties. After hatching, the young cubs climb to the right position and insert the mouthparts into the plant tissue to begin sucking the juice. At the same time, the wax or the shell is fixed and no longer moved. Anthraquinone pests can damage the leaves, branches, fruits, and roots, and the leaves are damaged and lose chlorophyll. After the fruits are damaged, they are spotted, and the damaged branches are rough and even die. From July to August, it was the second and third generation of most aphid pests, and migrated to fruit, directly affecting the appearance quality of fruits and reducing economic benefits. For the prevention and control of acarid pests, spraying should be carried out in the young pupal stage. At this time, the waxiness is small and the activity is large. Spray once every 10-15 days for 2-3 consecutive times. The following medicines can be used: 40% speed culling (anti-phospho) EC, 25% VCI WP, 20% chlorpyrifos, 25% buprofezin (ULO) WP 1000-1500 times; Or use 150-200 times mineral oil emulsion mixed with the above pesticides, can increase the penetration and increase the killing effect. Tengu insects: Invade the root, neck or cortex with larvae to prevent nutrient transport, often causing large cortical deaths and dead leaves. Take the following methods to prevent and cure: 1Injection: Use wire to clean Tianchuang manure, use 80% dichlorvos EC 20 times or gasoline (0.3ml per hole, 0.5ml for older larvae, 1ml for mature larvae) A needle with a veterinary syringe is injected into the hole, and then the hole is sealed with clay or cotton. If it is found that the insect feces continues to be discharged, the injection should be added once. 2 Asphyxia: The camphor balls are crushed into powder and the wormholes are cleared. Then, the mothballs are fed into the holes with iron wire, 1/5-1/4 pieces per well, and the wet mud seals the wormholes. Or use alcohol, gasoline to dissolve the mothballs, stuff the holes with the cotton yarn, and then seal the clay. 3 dry: use clay soil, add appropriate amount of water and dichlorvos or dimethoate mixed 20 times and dry, coated once every 20 days, should be used in the evening when the temperature is low, can prevent the days of cattle in the tree spawning, and Can kill larvae, adults, but also cockroaches, ticks pests. (4) Fumigation: Remove the wormholes first, then fill 0.5-1 pieces of 55% aluminum phosphide tablets, seal the holes with 2% saline, and then wrap them with a thin film. Aluminum phosphide quickly decomposes to release phosphine gas, and larvae die of drug use. 5 Spraying: When Tianni is out of the hole, spray dichlorvos or dimethoate 500 times on the trunk to make the liquid flow wet the trunk. 6 Capture: Noon mating in the tree, can be manually captured pest control.

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